Radiometric dating of rock materials
Prehistoric artists began by painting with their fingers.Later, they used lumpy pigment crayons, or brushes constructed from animal hair or vegetable fibre.clay ochres, charcoal, manganese dioxide, calcium phosphate from crushed animal bone, carrot juice and berries, animal blood and urine). Stone Age artists produced many different kinds of images.The most popular subjects were hunting scenes, which typically included pictures of bison, horses, reindeer, cattle and aurochs.For more about the chronology and history of Stone Age engravings and paintings, see: Prehistoric Art Timeline.(1) PALEOLITHIC ERA (2,500,000 - 3,000 BCE) - Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000 - 200,000 BCE) - Middle Paleolithic (200,000 - 40,000 BCE) - Upper Paleolithic (40,000-10,000 BCE) --- Aurignacian Art (40,000-25,000 BCE). Europe is particularly famous for its pictographic cave murals in southern France and Spain.They include: the Horse Panel and the Panel of Lions and Rhinoceroses at Chauvet Cave; the hand stencils and polychrome paintings in the underwater Cosquer Cave; the charcoal and ochre pictures of Dappled Horses at Pech-Merle Cave; the incredible Hall of the Bulls at Lascaux Cave; the animal paintings at Font de Gaume Cave and Cueva de La Pasiega; the extraordinary large scale wall paintings in the polychrome chamber at Altamira.
Indeed, they are still used in tribal art and in some non-literate cultures in Africa, South and Central America, and Oceania.Similar terms include: "rock carvings", "rock engravings", "rock inscriptions", "rock drawings" and "rock paintings".This type of Stone Age art is traditionally divided into two main categories: (1) Petroglyphs: meaning, rock engravings or carvings; this category also includes works of prehistoric sculpture that are part of the rocks themselves (known as parietal art), such as relief sculpture. While these petroglyphs and pictographs have been found on the walls of caves, or on exposed outdoor sections of rock, in practice, the earliest art of Europe was created in subterranean caves, while in (say) Northern Africa it is found mostly on the surface of the ground.Other creatures portrayed, included: lions, mammoths, wolves, foxes, hares, hyenas, fish, reptiles, and birds.(See for instance the red ochre mammoth pictures among the Kapova Cave Paintings, 12,500 BCE.) By comparison, images of humans appear less frequently.